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how to take apart steering shaft and starter on 93 dodge dakota?

The steering shaft and starter removal procedure, both are detailed below with proper steps and diagrams.--------First its about steering shaft and next its about starter.Go through complete procedure from below:---


Have steering straight. Mark the couplier that connects the steering column to the steering box (The round thing with 4 bolts) . Remove the two star bolts holding the shaft to the couplier. There may be a piece of plastic in a large pin in the bell to remove. There is a small pin to punch out of the bell and a large hollow pin to punch out (new ones should come in the kit). Now the whole thing should be free to remove. Remove the cap from the bell and pay attention how all the pieces fit together inside as they may fall apart as you pull the shaft out of the bell. Puch the solid pin out of the shaft. Clean (if you anal like me). Install rubber boot over shaft BEFORE installing the pin. Install solid pin. Install those two square things and metal holder. Grease and install in bell. Install bracket to hold on boot. (A) Install bell onto steering column, do not install pins yet. Bolt coupler. Go check your steering wheel for alignment. If it is not straight, the bell is not on the shaft in the same place you removed it. Go back to (A) If everything check outs, Install both pins in bell and replace plastic piece if it existed.

Removal and installation of the shaft is very simple and easy. What I did I placed the front end off the ground on jack stands. Removed the driver side tire for more working room. With the front wheels off the ground I can rotate the steering by hand from underneath to locate the 13mm bolts one on top and the other at the bottom of the shaft.

Upper bolt and lower bolt shown in pic


Remove the bottom bolt completely out of the shaft, but don't remove the shaft from the rack and pinion just yet. Rotate the shaft to expose the top bolt to gain access for your socket wrench. Remove bolt completely out of shaft. The bolts must be completely taken out otherwise the shaft wont come off. After the bolts are removed compress the shaft and it should come right out. Once the shaft is out, make sure not to move the steering wheel otherwise damage could be caused to the clockspring in the steering wheel.

Next install the new intermediate shaft into place. Place the bottom part of the shaft onto the rack and pinion. Compress the shaft (if need be) and place the upper part of the shaft onto the steering rod. Place some lock-tite on the threads of the bolt and install the upper bolt first. Torque the bolt down to 36 ft.lbs rotate the shaft (if need be) to gain access for the lower bolt installation, again put lock-tite on the bolt and torque the lower bolt down to 36 ft lbs.

Put the driver side wheel back on, remove the jack stands and enjoy!!

Newly installed shaft


New Shaft VS Old Shaft "original" .


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Steering Column




REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



1989-93 Models
  1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2. On trucks with a column shift, disconnect the link rod by prying the rod out of the grommet in the shift lever.
  3. Remove the lower coupling roll pin.
  4. Disconnect the wiring at the column.
  5. Remove the steering wheel.
  6. Remove the turn signal lever.
  7. Remove the floor plate screws.
  8. Remove the instrument panel lower reinforcement.
  9. Disconnect the selector cable from the bracket on the column.
  10. Remove the column bracket-to-instrument panel nuts.
  11. Carefully remove the coupling from the wormshaft and lift the column out of the truck.

To install:
  1. Install a new shift grommet from the rod side of the lever using pliers and a backup washer to snap the grommet into place. Coating the grommet with multi-purpose grease will aid in installation. A new grommet should be used whenever a rod is disconnected from the lever.
  2. Position the column in the truck.
  3. With the front wheels straight-ahead and the master splines on the wormshaft and coupling aligned, engage the coupling and wormshaft and install the roll pin.


WARNING
Never force the shaft down into position!

  1. Install, but don't tighten, the bracket nuts.
  2. Make sure that both plastic spacers are fully seated in their slots in the column support bracket, then, tighten the bracket nuts to 110 inch lbs. (12.5 Nm)
  3. Install the floor plate screws.
  4. Install the steering wheel.
  5. Connect the wiring.
  6. Connect and adjust the shift linkage.
  7. Connect the shift selector cable to the bracket on the column in its original location. Slowly move the shift lever from L to P, pausing briefly at each position. The pointer must align with each selector position. If necessary, loosen the bolt and re-adjust the linkage to align the pointer correctly.
  8. Install the panel lower reinforcement and cluster bezel.
RAM MODELS

See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6


CAUTION
When a steering column has an air bag module attached, never place the column on the floor or other surface with the steering wheel or module face down.

  1. Make sure the wheels are in the straight-ahead position.
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.



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Fig. Fig. 1: The steering coupler is secured to the column by a bolt

WARNING

Do not bump, jolt or hammer on the column shaft and gear shift tube.

  1. Pry the shift link rod out of the grommet on the bottom of the column, if equipped with an automatic transmission.



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Fig. Fig. 2: Remove the PRNDL cable as shown



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Fig. Fig. 3: Multi-function switch wiring-1994-96 models

  1. Remove the steering wheel from the column (refer to the procedure in this section).



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Fig. Fig. 4: Details of the steering column wiring

  1. For vehicles equipped with a column shift, disconnect the link rod in the engine compartment.
  2. Pry out the link rod from the grommet in the shift lever.
  3. Paint installation alignment marks on the column shaft-to-coupler to aid column shaft alignment upon reinstallation. Remove the steering column shaft-to-coupler bolt.



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Fig. Fig. 5: Install the ground clip and spacer in the position shown

  1. Remove the dash panel cover under the column.
  2. For column shift vehicles, make sure the shift lever is in PARK. Pull the cable and twist it to remove it from the position arm. Push the tab on the bottom of the cable retainer, then squeeze the sides to remove the retainer from the column.
  3. If equipped with a tilt column, remove the tilt lever. Remove the upper and lower lock housing shroud trim.



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Fig. Fig. 6: If necessary, adjust the PRNDL indicator with the recessed hex bolt indicated

  1. Remove the turn signal/multi-function switch using a 7mm socket.
  2. Loosen the upper support bracket nuts to allow some slack. This will aid in removal of the upper fixed shroud.
  3. Remove the electrical connections from the key-in light, ignition switch, horn, and clock spring (speed control)
  4. Remove the wiring harness from the column by prying out the plastic retainer buttons.
  5. Remove the lower dash panel and toe plate fasteners.
  6. Remove the column from the vehicle. Take care to avoid damaging paint or trim.

To install:
  1. Install a replacement grommet on the shift rod arm and lubricate it with a suitable multi-purpose lubricant.
  2. Install the ground clip on the left spacer slot.
  3. If applicable, remove the shipping lock pin.
  4. Install the column in the vehicle through the floorpan. Position the column bracket shear pins on the attaching studs and loosely assemble the upper bracket nuts.
  5. Make sure the wheels are still in a straight-ahead position and align the column shaft to the coupler. Install the pinch bolt, then tighten to 36 ft. lbs. (49 Nm).
  6. Clip the wiring harness onto the steering column. Install the multifunction switch and connect the column wiring. Tighten it with a 7mm socket.
  7. Install the upper fixed shroud.
  8. Make sure the both breakaway capsules are fully seated in the slots on the column bracket, then tighten the bracket bolts to 105 inch lbs. (12 Nm).
  9. Tighten the toe plate to floor pan attaching nuts to 17 ft. lbs. (23 Nm).
  10. Install the wiring connections to the column.
  11. Install the lower shroud. Position the shift lever, if equipped with an automatic transaxle, in the farthest down position and install the PRNDL cable. If the indicator needs adjustment, turn the recessed hex head screw underneath the cable retainer.
  12. Install the lock housing shrouds. Install the tilt lever (if equipped).
  13. Install the lower dash panel column cover.
  14. Install the steering wheel.
  15. Connect the shift link rod to the transmission shift lever. Use multi-purpose grease to aid the installation.
  16. Check the transaxle linkage adjustment through all of the gear positions.
  17. Connect the negative battery cable.

DAKOTA MODELS

See Figures 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11


CAUTION
When a steering column has an air bag module attached, never place the column on the floor or other surface with the steering wheel or module face down.

  1. Make sure the wheels are in the straight-ahead position.
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.



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Fig. Fig. 7: Pry up on the link rod to disengage it

WARNING

Do not bump, jolt or hammer on the column shaft and gear shift tube.



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Fig. Fig. 8: Exploded view of the coupler bolt installation

  1. Remove the steering wheel from the column (refer to the procedure in this section).



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Fig. Fig. 9: The steering column cover will have to be unscrewed and lowered to facilitate the column removal

  1. Pry out the link rod from the grommet in the shift lever.



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Fig. Fig. 10: Column shift indicator cable routing

  1. Remove the upper-to-lower coupler pinch bolt. Push the upper coupler shaft down into the steering coupler.



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Fig. Fig. 11: Install a new link rod grommet using a pair of pliers as shown

  1. Push the upper-to-lower coupler shaft down into the steering coupler.
  2. Remove the dash panel column cover.

  1. For column shift vehicles, make sure the shift lever is in position 1, then remove the gear position indicator cable.
  2. If equipped with a tilt column, remove the tilt lever. Remove the upper and lower lock housing shroud trim. Remove the lower fixed shroud.
  3. Remove the turn signal/multi-function switch using a 7mm socket.
  4. Loosen the upper support bracket nuts to allow some slack. This will aid in removal of the upper fixed shroud.
  5. Remove the electrical connections from the key-in light, ignition switch, horn, and clock spring (speed control)
  6. Remove the wiring harness from the column by prying out the plastic retainer buttons.
  7. Remove the lower dash panel and toe plate fasteners.
  8. Remove the column from the vehicle. Take care to avoid damaging paint or trim.

To install:
  1. Install a replacement grommet on the shift rod arm and lubricate it with a suitable multi-purpose lubricant.
  2. Install the ground clip on the left spacer slot.
  3. Remove the shipping lock pin, if applicable.
  4. Install the column in the vehicle through the floorpan, position the column bracket shear pins on the attaching studs and loosely assemble the upper bracket nuts.
  5. Make sure the wheels are still in a straight-ahead position. Align and install the upper and lower coupler. Do not apply force to the top of the steering column shaft.
  6. Install the coupler bolt, then tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm).
  7. Clip the wiring harness onto the steering column. Install the multifunction switch and connect the column wiring and tighten it with a 7mm socket.
  8. Install the upper fixed shroud.
  9. Make sure the both breakaway capsules are fully seated in the slots on the column bracket, then tighten the bracket bolts to 105 inch lbs. (12 Nm).
  10. Tighten the toe plate attaching nuts/bolts to 17 ft. lbs. (23 Nm).
  11. Install the wiring connections to the column.
  12. Install the lower fixed shroud.
  13. For column shift vehicles, install the gear position indicator cable.
  14. Install the lock housing shrouds. Install the tilt lever (if equipped).
  15. Install the lower dash panel column cover.
  16. Install the steering wheel.
  17. For column shift vehicles, connect the shift link rod to the transmission shift lever. Use multi-purpose grease to aid the installation.
  18. Check the transaxle linkage adjustment through all of the gear positions.
  19. Connect the negative battery cable.

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Steering Linkage



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Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the steering linkage assembly-4WD Dakota models

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Tie Rod Ends

See Figures 2, 3 and 4

  1. Raise and safely support the vehicle on jackstands.



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Fig. Fig. 2: Remove the cotter pin and discard

  1. Remove the cotter pin and nut from the tie rod end.



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Fig. Fig. 3: Use the correct socket or wrench to remove the castellated nut from the tie rod end

  1. Using a suitable puller, remove the tie rod from the steering knuckle of center link.



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Fig. Fig. 4: Use a tie rod puller to separate the link

Either count the number of visible threads or paint an alignment reference mark before unscrewing the end from the tie rod. This should enable you to thread the tie rod end back to NEAR the original position. Even if this is done, a front end alignment check should still be performed.

  1. Loosen the sleeve clamp nut and bolt and unscrew the tie rod end from the sleeve.

To install:
  1. Install the tie rod end in the sleeve. Screw it in as many turns as the tie rod end was when removed (or to the painted mark).
  2. Install the tie rod end into the steering knuckle. Install the castellated nut, tightening it to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm). Always install a new cotter pin.
  3. Have the alignment checked at a reputable repair facility.

Pitman Arm

  1. Place the wheels in a straight-ahead position.
  2. Disconnect the drag link at the pitman arm. You'll need a puller such as a tie rod end remover.
  3. Remove the pitman arm-to-gear nut and washer.
  4. Matchmark the pitman arm and gear housing for installation purposes.
  5. Using a 2-jawed puller, remove the pitman arm from the gear.

To install:
  1. With the wheels in the straight-ahead position, install the pitman arm up to the matchmarks made previously and restore it to its correct mounted position.
  2. Tighten the pitman arm nut to 175 ft. lbs. (237 Nm). Tighten the drag link ball stud nut to 40 ft. lbs., advancing the nut to align the cotter pin hole. Never back off the nut to align the hole.

Tie Rod and Drag Link

See Figure 5

Drag link seals should be inspected for damage at all oil change interval.

Damaged seals require removal of the seals and inspection of the drag link assembly at the throat opening. If the parts have not lost all the lubricant or are not contaminated, worn or rusted, use new seals and reinstall. Otherwise a completely new drag link assembly should be installed.



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Fig. Fig. 5: Reference marks for installing the drag link

  1. Raise and safely support the vehicle (at a comfortable working height. Remove the interfering wheel from the vehicle.
  2. Turn the wheels in a direction that will give the best access to the drag link.
  3. Remove the cotter pins and nuts from the drag link. Install puller tool C-4150, or equivalent, to free the drag link from the steering gear arm.
  4. Lower the drag link from the vehicle.

To install:
  1. Position the drag link to the steering knuckle arm so that from the bend in the arm to the knuckle is the short distance marked as "A'' (see illustration). The long distance from the bend (marked "B'') is to be installed in the steering gear arm.
  2. Seat the studs in the tapered hole before tightening the nuts. This will avoid wrap-up of the rubber grommets during tightening of the nuts. Tighten the nuts to 60 ft. lbs. (81 Nm). Always use new cotter pins.
  3. Install the wheel. Carefully lower the vehicle.

Connecting Rod

  1. Raise and support the front end on jackstands.
  2. Place the wheels in the straight-ahead position.
  3. Disconnect the connecting rod from the drag link by removing the nut and separating the two with a tie rod end remover.
  4. Loosen the bolts on the adjusting sleeve clamps. Count the number of turns it takes to remove the connecting rod from the adjuster sleeve and remove the rod.
  5. Installation is the reverse of removal. Install the connecting rod the exact number of turns noted during removal. Tighten the nuts to 40 ft. lbs. (55 Nm).
  6. Have the alignment checked at a reputable repair facility.

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Steering Wheel


1989-93 Models

See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

  1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.



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Fig. Fig. 1: Remove the steering wheel pad screws from the back of the wheel



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Fig. Fig. 2: Unplug the horn's electrical connectors from the steering wheel pad

  1. If applicable, unscrew the horn pad from behind the steering wheel.
  2. Working through the access holes in the back of the wheel, push the horn pad off. Do NOT pry the pad off!



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Fig. Fig. 3: Use paint or a marker to matchmark the steering wheel shaft and the wheel itself



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Fig. Fig. 4: With the correct socket, remove the steering wheel retaining nut

  1. Disconnect the horn wire.



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Fig. Fig. 5: Use a steering wheel puller to coerce the wheel from its press-fit on the shaft

  1. Matchmark the steering wheel and shaft.
  2. Remove the steering wheel retaining nut.
  3. Using a puller, remove the steering wheel from the shaft. NEVER hammer the shaft to free the wheel!
  4. Installation is the reverse of removal. Tighten the nut to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm).

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General Information


See Figure 1

The starting system consists of the following components:



Ignition switch
Starter relay
Park/neutral position switch (automatic transmission)
Clutch position switch (1995-96 manual transmission models only)
Wiring harness and connections
Battery
Starter with an integral solenoid



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Fig. Fig. 1: Components of a common starting system

The starter system components comprise two separate circuits, a high amperage and a low amperage circuit. The low amperage circuit is responsible for engaging the starter's pinion drive gear to the flywheel/driveplate ring, and the high amperage circuit is the actual power supply to the starter motor upon start-up. The high amperage circuit supplies the starter with up to 300 or more amps (700 amps for diesel engine). The low amperage control circuit operates on less than 20 amps.

When the ignition switch is turned to the START position, battery voltage for automatic transmission-equipped vehicles is supplied through the low amperage control circuit to the coil battery terminal. The park/neutral position switch provides a ground path to the starter relay coil ground terminal. This way the vehicle can only be started in Neutral or Park.

For 1995-96 manual transmission models (which employ a clutch/starter interlock), the low amperage control circuit operates in a similar fashion, except that the clutch position switch supplies battery voltage to the coil battery terminal at the starter relay when the ignition key is turned to START and the clutch pedal is depressed.

If equipped with an automatic transmission, the amperage supplied to the starter relay causes the normally open relay contacts to close. The closed relay contacts then divert the electricity at the common feed terminal through the wiring harness to energize the solenoid coils. The energized coils then pull in and hold in the solenoid plunger. The solenoid plunger then pulls the starter shift lever which engages the starter overrunning clutch and pinion gear with the flywheel/drive plate ring gear.

As the plunger extends fully, the high amperage circuit is completed and current flows to the starter motor, which cranks the engine. When the engine starts the overrunning clutch in the pinion gear allows the gear to spin faster than the pinion shaft thus preventing damage to the starter from the fast-spinning engine. As the key is released from the START position to the ON position, the relay coil is de-energized and the plunger return spring pulls the plunger back to the relaxed position.

The starter motor and the starter solenoid are integrated as one unit. They are not independently serviceable. If the the starter fails, the entire unit must be replaced.



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Starter


REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Gasoline Engines

See Figures 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20



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Fig. Fig. 13: Disconnect the wires attached to the starter solenoid to facilitate removal

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.



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Fig. Fig. 14: Unbolt the starter from the vehicle

  1. Remove the cable from the starter.



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Fig. Fig. 15: Once detached, remove the starter from the vehicle



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Fig. Fig. 16: Exploded view of the starter mounting-2.5L engine

  1. Disconnect the solenoid leads at their solenoid terminals. If necessary, tag then to avoid confusion when re-installing.



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Fig. Fig. 17: Attach the starter wire connector to the terminals as shown-V6 and V8 engines



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Fig. Fig. 18: To remove the starter, unbolt the mounting hardware shown-V6 and V8 engines

On 4WD Dakota models with the V6 engine, the starter is removed from above. On these models you will have to disconnect the steering gear and position the shaft out of the way to gain working clearance.

  1. Remove the starter attachment bolts and withdraw the starter from the engine flywheel housing. On some models with automatic transmissions, the oil cooler tube bracket will interfere with the starter removal. In this case, remove the starter attachment bolts, slide the cooler tube bracket off the stud, and then withdraw the starter.



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Fig. Fig. 19: When detached, pull the starter away from the engine and remove it from the vehicle-2WD Dakota model shown

To install:
  1. Be sure that the starter and flywheel housing mating surfaces are free of dirt and oil to make a good electrical contact.



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Fig. Fig. 20: Install the starter motor on the 4WD Dakota from above as shown

  1. Slide the starter in place, secure using the bolts and washers removed. Tighten the bolts to 50 ft. lbs. (68 Nm). Connect wires and battery cable end at the starter.
  2. If removed for clearance, reconnect the steering column shaft.
  3. Secure the oil cooler bracket if equipped. Connect the negative battery cable on the battery.

When tightening the mounting bolt and nut on the starter, hold the starter away from the engine for the correct alignment.

Diesel Engines

See Figure 21

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Raise the truck and support it safely on jackstands.
  3. Disconnect and label the wires at the starter motor.
  4. Remove the attaching bolt, nut and washer, then lift the starter and solenoid assembly from the engine.

To install:
  1. Before installing the starter motor, be sure the mounting surface on the drive end housing and the flywheel housing are clean, to ensure good electrical contact.
  2. When tightening the attaching bolt and nut, hold the starter away from the engine to ensure the proper alignment. Tighten the bolts to 32 ft. lbs. (43 Nm).
  3. Attach the wiring at the starter. Tighten the solenoid connection to 44 inch lbs. (5 Nm). Tighten the battery cable at the starter motor to 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm).
  4. Attach the negative battery cable.

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SOLENOID REPLACEMENT



Chrysler Corp. for 1989-91 models did provide replaceable solenoids for the starter motors covered by this information. However since 1992, the manufacturer no longer recommends replacement of individual components, even if the later unit has the same part number of a formerly serviceable unit. Chrysler now simply calls for replacement of the entire starter assembly if the solenoid is found faulty.



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Fig. Fig. 21: Starter electrical connections and mounting bolt locations-diesel engine


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TESTING



Before performing any tests, inspect the wiring and connections at the:



Ignition switch
Starter relay
Park/neutral position switch (automatic transmission)
Battery
Starter with an integral solenoid

Inspect the solenoid, relay, and ignition switch to determine their condition. If equipped with an automatic transmission, inspect the condition of the park/neutral position switch. If the vehicle is a 1995-96 manual transmission model with a clutch position switch, inspect the condition of the switch.

Cold Cranking Test

See Figures 1, 2 and 3

  1. Prepare for the test by performing the following:
    1. Ensure the battery is in good condition and fully charged. If you have doubt about the battery, load test it first. A marginal battery will throw off the results of any electrical test if you don't check for it first.
    2. Connect a suitable volts-ampere tester to the positive and negative battery terminals. Refer to the tester manufacturer's instructions for proper hookup and operation.
    3. Engage the parking brake fully. Place manual transmissions in NEUTRAL, or automatic transmissions in PARK.
    4. Verify that all lamps and accessories are OFF and the doors are closed.
    5. Make sure the engine won't start by disconnecting the Automatic Shutdown (ASD) relay on gas-powered vehicles or the fuel shutdown solenoid connector on diesel vehicles (The relay is on the underside of the PDC cover.)




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Fig. Fig. 1: A common ASD relay location on V6 and V8 engines



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Fig. Fig. 2: A common ASD relay location-2.5L engine

  1. To test the starter output, turn the ignition key to the START position.



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Fig. Fig. 3: You will need to connect a volt-ampere tester to perform the cold cranking test

A cold engine will increase starter current and reduce battery voltage.

  1. Read cranking voltage and amperage on the tester.
    1. If voltage is is above 9.6 and amperage draw is above 300 amps (gas engine) or 700 amps (diesel engine), see the Starter Feed Circuit Tests.
    2. If voltage is 12.5 volts or greater and amperage is below specifications, see the Control Circuit Tests.


Feed Circuit Test

See Figures 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8

This is a test for excessive resistance in the high amperage circuit. For accurate results, make sure the voltage meter is connected as described: Connect the voltmeter leads to the terminals that the cable connectors or clamps are connected to, not the cable connectors or clamps themselves. For example, when testing between the battery and solenoid, touch the voltmeter leads to the battery post and the solenoid threaded stud.



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Fig. Fig. 4: For diesel engines, you must disable the fuel shutdown solenoid by unplugging it at the harness connector

This test will require a voltmeter capable of accurate readings of 1/10 (0.10) volt.

Before beginning, make sure the parking brake is fully applied, the battery is good and is fully charged and perform the following to prevent unwanted start-up of the engine while testing:



Gasoline-powered vehicles: Unplug the Auto Shut-Down (ASD) relay from the Power Distribution Center (PDC).
Diesel engine vehicles: Disconnect the fuel shutdown solenoid connector (see illustration).
1995-96 manual transmission models: Install a jumper wire between two clutch position switch connectors.

  1. Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the battery negative post. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the negative battery cable clamp.



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Fig. Fig. 5: Test the battery cable connection voltage drop with a voltmeter

  1. Turn the ignition to the START position and read the voltmeter. If voltage registers, correct the poor contact between the cable clamp and post.
  2. Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the battery positive post. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the positive battery cable clamp.



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Fig. Fig. 6: Test the battery positive cable voltage drop using a voltmeter

  1. Turn the ignition to the START position and read the voltmeter. If voltage registers, correct the poor contact between the cable clamp and post.
  2. Connect the voltmeter to measure between the battery positive post and the starter solenoid battery stud.



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Fig. Fig. 7: Test the ground circuit voltage drop using the voltmeter

  1. Turn the ignition to the START position and read the voltmeter. If the voltmeter reads above 0.2 volt, correct the poor battery cable contact at the solenoid.



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Fig. Fig. 8: Test the starter ground as shown

  1. Repeat the test. If the reading is still above 0.2 volt, replace the battery positive cable.
  2. Connect the voltmeter to measure between the battery negative post and a good (clean) engine ground.
  3. Turn the ignition to the START position and read the voltmeter. If the voltmeter reads above 0.2 volt, correct the poor negative battery cable contact at its attaching point.
  4. Repeat the test. If the reading is still above 0.2 volt, replace the battery negative cable.
  5. Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the starter housing. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the negative terminal.
  6. Turn the ignition to the START position and read the voltmeter. If the voltmeter reads above 0.2 volt, correct the poor starter to engine ground.
  7. If no feed circuit tests are detected in these resistance tests, remove the starter and proceed to the solenoid test.

Control Circuit Tests

The starter control circuit consists of the following:



Starter solenoid
Starter relay
Ignition switch
Park/neutral position switch (automatic transmission)
Clutch pedal position switch (1995-96 manual transmission models only)
Wiring harness and connections

For gasoline-powered vehicles: Unplug the Automatic Shut-Down (ASD) relay from the Power Distribution Center (PDC). For diesel engine vehicles, disconnect the fuel shutdown solenoid connector.

Follow the tests of this group (Solenoid, Relay and Relay Circuit) in the order described.

SOLENOID TEST

See Figures 9 and 10

This procedure requires a continuity tester.

  1. Remove the starter from the vehicle.



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Fig. Fig. 9: Test the continuity between the solenoid terminal and the field coil terminal

  1. Disconnect the solenoid field coil wire from the field coil terminal.



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Fig. Fig. 10: Test the continuity between the solenoid terminal and the solenoid case

  1. Check for continuity between the solenoid terminal and field coil terminal. There should be continuity.
  2. Check for continuity between the solenoid terminal and solenoid case. There should be continuity. If there is continuity, the solenoid is good. If there is no continuity in either test, the solenoid has an open circuit. Replace the starter assembly.
  3. Connect the solenoid field coil wire to the field coil terminal.
  4. Install the starter.

RELAY TEST

See Figures 11 and 12

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Fig. Fig. 11: Location of the power distribution center

The starter relay is in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). Refer to the underside of the PDC cover for relay location. Remove the starter relay to perform these tests.

  1. A relay in the de-energized position should have continuity between terminals 87A and 30, and no continuity between 87 and 30. If you find otherwise, replace the relay, otherwise proceed to the next step.
  2. Check resistance between terminals 85 and 86 (electromagnet). It should be 70-80 ohms. If not replace the faulty relay. If so, continue to the next step.
  3. Connect a known good 12 volt battery to terminals 85 and 86. There should be continuity between terminals 30 and 87, and no continuity between terminals 87A and 30. If not, replace the faulty relay. If so, continue to the relay circuit test.



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Fig. Fig. 12: Starter relay connections

RELAY CIRCUIT TEST

See Figure 12

  1. Check for battery voltage at the starter relay common feed terminal (30). It should be hot at all times. If it is energized, go to the next step. If not, check the circuit to fuse F12 in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). repair as required.
  2. The normally closed terminal (87A) is connected to terminal 30 in the de-energized position, but is not used for this application. Go to the next step.
  3. The normally open terminal (87) is connected to the battery terminal (30) in the energized position. This terminal supplies battery voltage to the starter solenoid field coils. There should be continuity between the cavity for relay terminal 87 and the starter solenoid terminal at all times. If it is energized, go to the next step. If not, repair the circuit to the solenoid as required.
  4. The coil battery terminal (86) is connected to the electromagnet in the relay. It is energized when the ignition switch is in the START position. Check for battery voltage at the cavity for relay terminal 86 with the ignition switch in the START position. If it is energized, go to the next step. If not, and the vehicle has an automatic transmission, you will need to check the ignition switch for proper operation. If it is not energized and the vehicle is a 1995-96 models with manual transmission, you will need to check the clutch pedal position switch.
  5. The coil ground terminal (85) is connected to the electromagnet in the relay. On vehicles with an automatic transmission, it is grounded through the park/neutral position switch. On manual transmission models, it is grounded at all times. Check for continuity to ground at the cavity for relay terminal 85. If not as specified, and the vehicle has a manual transmission, repair the circuit as required. If not as specified and the vehicle has an automatic transmission, you will need to check the park/neutral position switch.

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